Irrigation

Irrigation and methods

Our unpredictable Mumbai monsoon teaches us that we cannot rely on just rain for water. So what about the Indian farmer whose livelihood depends on water? Gone are the days when Bhuvan in ‘Lagaan’ would sing “Kale megha, Kale megha, Paani toh barsao” and it would rain cats and dogs! After all, life isn’t like the Bollywood dreamland. No? So, to manage their crop, farmers go for what is called irrigation.

What is irrigation?

It is the artificial application of water to the soil. It is used to assist the growing of agricultural crops.

The different methods of irrigation are:

  • Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation consists of methods in which water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity. The water flows through furrows or pipes and advances across the fields. It is best suited to fine textured soil types which promote lateral spread of water down the furrow row.

Irrigation

Surface Irrigation

  • Sprinkler irrigation

It is a method in which water is sprayed, or sprinkled through the air and falls like rain on fields. The sprinkling devices can be permanently set in place (solid set) and then moved after a particular amount of water has been applied (portable set).

Irrigation

Sprinkler Irrigation

  • Subsurface irrigation

In this process, water is applied below the soil surface. This is done through buried plastic tubes which contain embedded emitters located at a regular spacing. Its efficiency is great resulting in water savings of 25-50% as compared to other techniques.

Irrigation

Subsurface irrigation

  • Drip irrigation

In this process water is dripped through emitters to the soil surface as tiny drops. The discharge rate of the emitters is low so this method can be used on all soil types. This is one of the most common and useful methods.

Irrigation

Drip irrigation

Facts:

Modern methods are a boon to agricultural industry and small time farmers. With its help, the dependence on rain has decreased and so have the worried faces of farmers praying to the heavens. In fact the Andhra Pradesh State government has even taken up the integration of two major rivers Godavari and Krishna with a mission to make Rayalaseema drought free. It will make agriculture flourish. The project name is Pattiseema Project and it is India’s fastest built mega project!

We city people live in pigeon holes where nothing more than a potted plant can grow. But don’t despair, try out the drip irrigation set from http://www.projectsforschool.com and experience first-hand how this process works.

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