Traffic light

Did you know the first traffic light actually exploded injuring its operator?

The first traffic light ever was installed on December 9, 1968 in London outside the House of Parliament to control the traffic in the nearby three streets.

Based on all the future developments, traffic lights can be classified in various ways.

Traffic light

Traffic light

Classification on the basis of the automation of traffic lights:

There are two categories of traffic control system: A fixed system and a dynamic one. The dynamic traffic control systems can be further classified based on the types of detectors used in them.

The fixed traffic light control system is configured to switch lights after a certain period of time. The time interval depends on the region and traffic values. It has a controller that moves with dial timers to be able to display a certain color for a small interval of time.

Dynamic traffic control systems, on the other hand, are more appropriate as they are able to adapt their settings according to the crowd present at different times of day.

When a car passes over the Embedded Detector, it simply sends the information to the traffic light. In this way, the traffic system which can already control the timing by itself, knows for sure that there’s a line of cars waiting for the signal to go green. This kind of detector is generally expensive due to its cost installation and maintenance.

Mounted Detectors are quite affordable and its installation is not affected by any other systems located in its proximity. Not only these are inexpensive, but they also send over more information to the traffic lights which include real-time photos.

Classification on the basis of the use of a traffic signal

Let’s look at the following categories:

Junction Signal:

This signal control vehicles coming towards a certain junction in a contradictory manner. With the help of a camera mounted on it, it monitors and responds to the flow of traffic, whether heavy or light.

Pelican:

It facilitates the street crossing for people. This signal displays a digital dotted green-man signal or a red-man signal crossing for a fixed interval of time. Hence, it indicates for common people, according to its color, when it is safe to cross the street and when not.

Toucan:

This signal controls a shared crossing for common people and cyclists. It is usually wider than the Pelican Crossing mentioned above. It has standard red/green/yellow signals with a green digital cycle next to the man hence controlling the traffic of both of them (Cyclists and Pedestrians) at the same time. When the Toucan is busy, detectors help it by increasing the crossing time.

Equestrian Crossing:

This is mainly used by horse riders and more than often referred to as Pegasus crossing. Red and green horse signal display helps the riders to know when you can cross the street and when not.

Zebra:

Last, but not least, this is the one we all are very familiar with. It is again a pedestrian crossing facility. This mostly works in combination to the traffic light. When a pedestrian steps on to this area, a motorist has to give way. This crossing also has orange flashing light at both its end to indicate the presence of the crossing.

Zebra crossing

Zebra crossing

Traffic Signal Color Coding:

Red was the color that denoted blood and thus it was selected to stop the vehicles. It became the symbol of danger. Also, even in misty environment, red color could be seen from far distance and hence avoided fatal collisions.

Green symbolizing nature was chosen as signal for relaxing as observed by human emotions. And it was clearly visible at the night time and since it is quite a contrast in comparison to red and yellow, it would never create confusion for the drivers.

As for Yellow, most people believe that it symbolizes sun and is taken as a sign of caution.

Over the years, traffic lights have evolved although maintaining the basic colors to accommodate people suffering from color blindness. Red-green color blindness, these days, is the most common form of visual impairment. Hence the red light comes with a little orange and green comes with a little blue to address this socio-medical issue.

We can conclude that traffic lights were a great invention for all of us. But what if I tell you can build one too? That way you could teach him about this simple invention that we use in our day to day lives. Don’t worry; you can get the raw materials from Projects For School-Traffic light DIY Kit. If you are a parent who believes in “Practical is always better than just theory “then this is the ‘go to’ place for you.  Explore it. You just might find a great science project for your kids this semester!

 References

http://www.theguardian.com/notesandqueries/query/0,5753,-1460,00.html

http://www.autoevolution.com/news/how-do-traffic-light-control-systems-work-41839.html

http://www.rulesoftheroad.ie/rules-for-driving/traffic-lights-and-signals/traffic-lights.html

http://www.drivingtesttips.biz/pelican-crossing.html

https://www.safedrivingforlife.info/blog/whats-difference-between-zebra-puffin-and-pelican-crossings

 

 

10 most important inventions in physics

Students often complain that Physics is a tough subject. However, physics has also led to some very significant and interesting best science projects experiments, discoveries, inventions and changes in human life. Here is a brief list of some of 10 most important inventions in physics.

  1. The Wheel

The difficult part of the wheel was connecting a wooden platform to it. “The stroke of brilliance was the wheel-and-axle concept,” says David Anthony, a professor of anthropology at Hartwick College. Wheeled carts facilitated agriculture and commerce by the transportation of goods to and from markets.

The Wheel

The Wheel

  1. The Compass

Ancient sailors navigated by the stars, but that didn’t work during the day or on cloudy nights making voyage unsafe. The Chinese invented the first compass. Soon after, the technology passed to Europeans and Arabs. This is one of the best  science projects that had enabled mariners to navigate safely far from land. It increased sea trade and made the lands richer.

The Compass

The Compass

  1. The Printing Press

Though inventors in China and Korea had developed movable metal type, Gutenberg was the first to create a mechanized process that transferred the ink from the movable type to paper. Printing books and manuscripts became faster and led to widespread dissemination of knowledge for the first time in history.

The Printing Press

The Printing Press

  1. The Internal Combustion Engine

In the internal combustion engine, the combustion of a fuel releases a high-temperature gas, which expands, applying a force to a piston, moving it in the opposite direction. Thus, combustion engines convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. The engine welcomed the Industrial Age!

The Internal Combustion Engine

The Internal Combustion Engine

  1. The Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be awarded a patent for the electric telephone in 1876. He called it an “electrical speech machine.”The invention of this best science projects of all time  quickly revolutionized global business and communication. When Bell died on August 2, 1922 U.S. telephone service stopped for a minute to honour him.

The Telephone

The Telephone

  1. The Archimedes’ Screw

Archimedes’ greatest invention which is one of the best science projects in physics is the Archimedean Screw. He probably invented this device when he visited Egypt, where it’s still used for irrigation. The screw can be used for lifting finely divided solids.

The Archimedes Screw

The Archimedes Screw

  1. AC current

Tesla’s most important contribution to energy history is the use of alternating current (AC). The technology became the basis for most modern electricity distribution systems.

AC Current

AC Current

  1. Superconductors

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance which allows current to flow through a certain materials when cooled below the critical temperature. Can you imagine current flowing indefinitely through a wire? All our electricity woes will end by perfecting this technology.

Superconductor

Superconductor

  1. Nuclear technology

Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclear. Notable nuclear technologies include nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Though nuclear bombs have not made the world any safer, but this nuclear technology, one of the best science projects discovery is not all bad.

Nuclear Technology

Nuclear Technology

 

  1. X-rays

Wilhelm Röntgen received the very first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his best science projects discovery that is  X-rays. Within two weeks of generating X-rays he invented X-ray photography. The first ever X-ray photograph was of the bones in his wife’s hand.

X-Ray

X-Ray

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/). In conclusion, drop us an email for any other queries and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Angry Teenagers (Dealing with your child’s anger issues)

Angry Teenagers – Channelizing it

through activities 

When your teen is angry and screaming at you, it is very tempting to scream louder so you “win” the argument. But what does that do? In addition to prolonging the argument yelling back also means that you’re giving up your power. Giving in to the temptation can be quite costly in ways you probably didn’t realize. When you yell at your child, it simply escalates the argument and it turns him into an angry teenager.

Angry Teenagers (Dealing with your child's anger issues)

Angry Teenagers (Dealing with your child’s anger issues)

What not to do

  • Curse or name-call:  

    There’s no excuse for abuse—not by your child and not by you. Being verbally abusive to your child only makes things worse, both in the short-term when the argument escalates, and in the long-term when your relationship with your child becomes strained.

  • Attempt to control that angry teenager:

    This is one of the biggest stumbling blocks for parents. We hear from parents every day who, without realizing it, are trying to control their children. Holding your child accountable does not result in a child who is obedient all the time. Accountability means that you set the rules and you provide a consequence when your child decides to break the rules. You’re not a puppeteer; you’re a limit-setter. Let your child make his own choice. When a child experiences this unpleasant outcome, he can use that information to help him think about things next time he is considering breaking the rules.

  • Get physical:  

    A beating is not the way a teen will learn to do the right things. Often parents beat their children to the extent that they simply become immune to the punishment. In other cases, teens can be severely affected emotionally by it. Fear can set inside their mind.

Angry Teenager

Angry Teenager

What to Do

  • Walk away and calm down:  

    Ask yourself if the issue needs to be dealt with right now? Should you take some time to calm down before you address it with your child? Think about the situation carefully and allow things to cool down. You can address it later if you still feel the issue is important after you’ve thought it through. Teach your child the same technique.

  • Use a business-like tone:  

    When things are turbulent, address your child in the same tone with which a professionally-mannered boss would address an employee with poor performance. Stay calm and neutral, and stick to the facts.

  • Be honest:  

    Let your child know you’re having a hard time communicating with them when they fly into a rage. It’s perfectly okay to say things like, “When you scream at me, it doesn’t help any of us.”  This is a simple way to let them know their behavior isn’t working.

  • Channelize anger:Get your teen to work on different projects for school. Anger can be easily controlled with some constructive distractions like projects for school. Here at Projects for School, India, we have many science project kits which will help children educationally. Projects for School aims to provide children with educational and fun projects which will help channelize their energy in the right direction.
Angry Teenager

Angry Teenager

Visit www.projectsforschool.com and choose from among a wide range of science kits.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/). In conclusion, drop us an email for any other queries and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

5 interesting STEM careers

Think of a coder in his habitat. I’m sure you pictured a grimy teenager hunched over a laptop in a dark, dank cubicle. But that was the stereotype of yesteryear. Today, STEM careers have taken on a wildly different perception. Some of the coolest jobs ever require a background in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. STEM careers are far from the public perception of robotic employees and sterile, tiny cubicles in a corner. Let’s have a look at the 5 interesting STEM careers below:-

5 STEM careers you’ll sure covet!!

  1. NASA Rover Drive

Curiosity, the Mars rover touched down on the Red Planet in August and has beamed back photos, news of the weather and other data that’ll help us understand the planet better. (We have to. We might be living there soon!) While we’re all in the awe of this piece of machinery, we forget that there’s a human at the helm, navigating Curiosity over Martian terrain. It is one of the coolest jobs on (and beyond) earth. Becoming an astronomer is cool, but if you want to see some real action a rover driver is the best job for you.

5 interesting STEM careers

NASA Rover Drive

  1. Statistician – The Numbers People

Statisticians are not poor souls struggling with a fat book covered with numbers. Everyone who’s seen “Moneyball” knows that sports are games of data. Many sports teams have statisticians on board who analyze data, do the number crunching so that players can decide their moves in the game. ESPN has an entire analyst group.  If you’ve ever wondered how announcers come up with those totally obscure stats right after a game, the answer is that it’s someone’s job to research that data. It’s also someone’s job to figure out how to optimize the game by studying them.

5 interesting STEM careers

Statistician – The Numbers People

  1. Professional Hacker

Ethical hacking allows you to hack into top secret facilities a la James Bond without being thrown into prison. You are paid to wreck havoc on systems and present reports on their security vulnerabilities. Then they develop custom software to make the systems safe. The job takes a good deal of curiosity, persistence, creativity, a strong technical background and a competitive streak.

5 interesting STEM careers

Professional Hacker

  1. Amusement park designer

Who doesn’t love playing with Legos? Now imagine putting your “architectural expertise” to work, building roller coasters for the Legoland. Think up the most outrageous ideas and watch everyone’s jaws drop when they see your creation.

5 interesting STEM careers

Amusement park designer

  1. 3-D designer/animator

These are the people who bring Dory and Woody alive on our screens. 3-D designers use computer software to create 3-D visuals that are used in a variety of media such as video games, motion pictures and advertisements.

5 interesting STEM careers

3-D designer/animator

STEM careers have always had the “nerd” label attached to it. (Sigh…..!)

However, here we shout out to the world. We are creative, cool and AWESOME!! Okay, I think zyada ho gaya 😛 So if your kid shows interest in these fields, encourage him.

Oh and on a side note, if they do have a tendency to open up every next toy, equipment, tiny appliance that they can lay their hands upon, don’t stop them. Instead, buy them some cool DIY science kits so that they can have their fun while your costly things are still safe!

In conclusion, for more projects and ideas related to your child’s work you are free to visit our website http://www.projectsforschool.com

Make your child sympathetic towards the Environment

Sympathetic for the environment?

Let’s evolve some ideas to preserve it

Environment, a word that can simply be defined as anything that surrounds us. It includes all living and non-living things that occurs on the earth or thereof and hence is responsible for affecting an individual’s body, mind and heart. In terms of biology and somewhat ecology, all natural materials along with living things, even sunlight, constitute natural environment. So people who remain concerned about the environment are said to be environmentalists. They focus on protecting the environment, most probably by checking the pollution, greenery, population and many more. Now let us make a list of all the problems regarding the environment, along with the ideas to reduce their adverse effects.

  • POLLUTION: Environment is basically polluted when substances with harmful or toxic effects are introduced in it. There are different kinds of pollution like air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution which requires a lot of years to recoup. Everyone might know the consequences of these types of pollution. First of all, air pollution occurs due to increase in the amount of undesirable chemicals in the atmosphere. Effluents from the industries and vehicles are the major source of this. Water pollution is caused due to the deposition of waste materials from the refineries, industries. Some people also have a habit to complete the domestic chores on the bank of river, ultimately polluting it. Soil is also polluted with the industrial substances that reduce the nutrient quantity in soil.
http://www.projectsforschool.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/images-1.jpg

Environmental Deforestation

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

  • Proper Plantation. Trees not only purify the atmosphere but also beautify the surrounding.
  • Prohibition on Smoking. The part of cigarettes thrown after smoking

    is not degradable and contains toxic substances, which are further improper for the society.

  • Proper checking on car emissions.
  • Start an anti-litter campaign in surrounding.
  • In case you are a pet lover and you have a pet, then be careful while disposing it’s waste.

If you are eager to design your own pollution model or water purification plant, you can have it from www.projectsforschool.com/shop/ .

  • GLOBAL WARMING: The average surface temperature of the earth has increased due to the effect of greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). Furthermore, these gases are responsible for trapping heat from the sun and retain it within the earth’s atmosphere which is now resulting in climate change. The temperature all over the earth is increasing due to which glaciers has started melting, raising the water level throughout the globe. Excessive snow, flood and desertification are also a result of this.
Environmental Pollution

Environmental Pollution

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

  • Reduction on usage of refrigerators and air conditioners, since they are the biggest source of CFC’s.
  • Hinder on use of private vehicles. Basically, mandation on usage of public transport.
  • Enhancing plantation.
  • Proper usage of Electricity.
  • Idea of 3R’s should be used: REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE – For more knowledge, you must try a DIY model for the same at http://www.projectsforschool.com
  • NATURAL RESOURCE  DEPLETION: With the consumption of fossil fuels like coal, concentration of greenhouse gases increases in atmosphere, leading to global warming.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

  • Promotion of usage of renewable resources.
  • Daily life usage of Equipment working on the basis of solar energy like solar heater, solar cooker, solar traffic light, solar lamps etc.
  • Reduction of plastic bags.
  • OZONE LAYER DEPLETION: there is a protective layer around our mother earth whose job is to provide protection against the harmful radiations from the sun. Depletion of the Ozone layer especially relevant with the enhancement in the rate of global warming and greenhouse gases. This can result into various skin diseases, respiratory problems and maybe much more.
http://www.projectsforschool.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/images-1.jpg

Pollution

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

  • Elimination of devices probably generating greenhouse gases.
  • Controlled Pollution .
  • Checking of effluents from vehicles.
  • DEFORESTATION: This term denotes the process of cutting trees ruthlessly. It simply means clearing the greenery in order to have industrialization or residential area. In addition to it has contributed in climate change but also proved to be a reason for loss of wildlife heritage.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

  • Plantation of more and more trees. Most noteworthy, many schools have almost inculcated the habit of planting samplings on the eve of birthdays of students.
  • Acid Rain: Acid rain occurs due to the presence of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. This acidic fall is a known environmental problem that can have serious effect on human health, wildlife and aquatic species.
  • Waste disposal : The over consumption of resources and creation of plastics are creating a global crisis of waste disposal.Since plastics are non biodegradable, hence it rather gets basically stuck on the earth’s surface. Developed countries are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and dumping their waste in the oceans than less developed countries. Nuclear waste disposal most of all has tremendous health hazards associated with it. Plastic, fast food, packaging and cheap electronic wastes threaten the well-being of humans. Waste disposal is one of urgent current environmental problem.
Environmental Pollution

Environmental Pollution

  • Loss of Biodiversity:Human activities are leading to many unexpected results like extinction of species and habitats and loss of bio-diversity. Eco systems, which took millions of years to be perfect, is now in danger when a species population is decimating. Balance of natural processes like pollination is crucial for the survival of the Eco-system and human activity threatens the same. Furthermore, I remember of an example here. It is the destruction of coral reefs in the various oceans, which is vital for the rich marine life.
http://www.projectsforschool.com/

Garbage Pollution

PREVENTIVE MEASURES:

  • Prohibition of Animal hunting or poaching.
  • Legally prohibiting the Use of animal skin for production of leather items or bags.
  • Reduction of Deforestation.
  • Better living environment to the wildlife either by continuously checking Water pollution.
  • If you love biodiversity and want to make everyone aware of it, then most importantly have a project on this topic and present it in your school.
Pollution

Pollution

 

In conclusion, for more ideas and material for the next project of your child, therefore please visit projectsforschool.com/ .