10 most important inventions in physics

Students often complain that Physics is a tough subject. However, physics has also led to some very significant and interesting best science projects experiments, discoveries, inventions and changes in human life. Here is a brief list of some of 10 most important inventions in physics.

  1. The Wheel

The difficult part of the wheel was connecting a wooden platform to it. “The stroke of brilliance was the wheel-and-axle concept,” says David Anthony, a professor of anthropology at Hartwick College. Wheeled carts facilitated agriculture and commerce by the transportation of goods to and from markets.

The Wheel

The Wheel

  1. The Compass

Ancient sailors navigated by the stars, but that didn’t work during the day or on cloudy nights making voyage unsafe. The Chinese invented the first compass. Soon after, the technology passed to Europeans and Arabs. This is one of the best  science projects that had enabled mariners to navigate safely far from land. It increased sea trade and made the lands richer.

The Compass

The Compass

  1. The Printing Press

Though inventors in China and Korea had developed movable metal type, Gutenberg was the first to create a mechanized process that transferred the ink from the movable type to paper. Printing books and manuscripts became faster and led to widespread dissemination of knowledge for the first time in history.

The Printing Press

The Printing Press

  1. The Internal Combustion Engine

In the internal combustion engine, the combustion of a fuel releases a high-temperature gas, which expands, applying a force to a piston, moving it in the opposite direction. Thus, combustion engines convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. The engine welcomed the Industrial Age!

The Internal Combustion Engine

The Internal Combustion Engine

  1. The Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be awarded a patent for the electric telephone in 1876. He called it an “electrical speech machine.”The invention of this best science projects of all time  quickly revolutionized global business and communication. When Bell died on August 2, 1922 U.S. telephone service stopped for a minute to honour him.

The Telephone

The Telephone

  1. The Archimedes’ Screw

Archimedes’ greatest invention which is one of the best science projects in physics is the Archimedean Screw. He probably invented this device when he visited Egypt, where it’s still used for irrigation. The screw can be used for lifting finely divided solids.

The Archimedes Screw

The Archimedes Screw

  1. AC current

Tesla’s most important contribution to energy history is the use of alternating current (AC). The technology became the basis for most modern electricity distribution systems.

AC Current

AC Current

  1. Superconductors

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance which allows current to flow through a certain materials when cooled below the critical temperature. Can you imagine current flowing indefinitely through a wire? All our electricity woes will end by perfecting this technology.

Superconductor

Superconductor

  1. Nuclear technology

Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclear. Notable nuclear technologies include nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Though nuclear bombs have not made the world any safer, but this nuclear technology, one of the best science projects discovery is not all bad.

Nuclear Technology

Nuclear Technology

 

  1. X-rays

Wilhelm Röntgen received the very first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his best science projects discovery that is  X-rays. Within two weeks of generating X-rays he invented X-ray photography. The first ever X-ray photograph was of the bones in his wife’s hand.

X-Ray

X-Ray

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Telescope

Telescope and it’s applications

Do you remember the time you’d sit on your bed pretending to steer an imaginary ship? Your younger siblings used to yell, “Aye, Captain!” while you did your best imitation of Popeye. You’d roll a newspaper and peer out of one end spotting a whale through your makeshift telescope. And then one fine day, you were thrilled (maybe not so thrilled!) to discover what exactly a telescope is? Well Watson, time for us to show to the young ones (siblings, kids or cousins) interesting things about the telescope!

What is a telescope?

It is an optical instrument designed to make distant objects appear larger. It contains an arrangement of lenses, or curved mirrors and lenses, by which rays of light are collected and focused. The resulting image gets magnified.

On the lighter note, it’s a tube with two lenses that makes you see objects that are faaaaar away (yep, that far, really!) and makes them look BIG (yep, that big too!). Without this tube, the objects would be just little dots in the sky or the sea. Since I know you’re already rolling your eyes at me, so I promise to be all so serious as I describe the telescope.

Telescope

Telescope

How a Telescope Works

When you hold a magnifying glass a few inches away from a notebook page, the words on the page appear magnified. When you look at a distant object through the same magnifying glass, you see an upside-down image of the object.

Astronomical telescope

An astronomical telescope makes use of two lenses, one of which works in each of these ways. The lens in the front of the telescope (the objective lens) produces an upside-down image of the object. The lens near the eye (the eye lens) magnifies that upside-down image. As a result, you see distant objects closer.

Telescope

Astronomical telescope

Optical telescope

An optical telescope however, gathers and focuses light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image.

Telescope

Optical telescope

There are 3 primary types of optical telescope:

  • Refractors, which use lenses
  • Reflectors, which use mirrors
  • Catadioptric telescopes, which use a combination of both lenses and mirrors

These telescopes increase the apparent size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness.

History

          The first optical telescope was basically constructed by the lens-grinder Dutchman, Hans Lippershey in 1608. Interestingly, Galileo Galilei is sometimes wrongly credited with its invention. He built the first astronomical telescope from a tube containing two lenses of different focal lengths aligned on a single axis in the following year.

Galileo's Telescope

Galileo’s Telescope

With this telescope, he made the first telescopic observations of the sky. He discovered lunar mountains, four of Jupiter’s moons and sunspots. We learnt that Saturn had rings and that the Milky Way was not a cloud but a collection of stars! It was a revolution in the scientific world!! The secrets of the heavens finally seen! Since then, telescopes have increased in size and improved in image quality. Computers are now used to take photographs of the observations made with the help of telescopes.

Now that we know what the lens / mirror tube is all about and who made it, why not also discover what it does?

Applications of telescopes

  • They are used by astronomers most importantly, to discover the cosmic world in great detail. The Hubble telescope was used to discover galaxies beyond our own.
  • Before GPS, radar and sonar, the humble telescope was used to spot land by navigators in a ship. It was also used by merchant ship sailors, explorers and pirates. (Arrrr!!).
  • Telescopes are basically also used by ornithologists (bird scientists) for spotting rare birds from far away.

I sometimes wonder how astonishing it must’ve been for astronomers – to peer through a telescope and glimpse the true beauty of the heavens! The explorers of the past have relied on this invention to help them sail through uncharted waters. The telescope truly changed the way we humans viewed the world!

Oh and before I sign off, do check out this cool kit at (link) to make your own telescope!

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/). In conclusion, drop us an email for any other queries and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Irrigation

Irrigation and methods

Our unpredictable Mumbai monsoon teaches us that we cannot rely on just rain for water. So what about the Indian farmer whose livelihood depends on water? Gone are the days when Bhuvan in ‘Lagaan’ would sing “Kale megha, Kale megha, Paani toh barsao” and it would rain cats and dogs! After all, life isn’t like the Bollywood dreamland. No? So, to manage their crop, farmers go for what is called irrigation.

What is irrigation?

It is the artificial application of water to the soil. It is used to assist the growing of agricultural crops.

The different methods of irrigation are:

  • Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation consists of methods in which water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity. The water flows through furrows or pipes and advances across the fields. It is best suited to fine textured soil types which promote lateral spread of water down the furrow row.

Irrigation

Surface Irrigation

  • Sprinkler irrigation

It is a method in which water is sprayed, or sprinkled through the air and falls like rain on fields. The sprinkling devices can be permanently set in place (solid set) and then moved after a particular amount of water has been applied (portable set).

Irrigation

Sprinkler Irrigation

  • Subsurface irrigation

In this process, water is applied below the soil surface. This is done through buried plastic tubes which contain embedded emitters located at a regular spacing. Its efficiency is great resulting in water savings of 25-50% as compared to other techniques.

Irrigation

Subsurface irrigation

  • Drip irrigation

In this process water is dripped through emitters to the soil surface as tiny drops. The discharge rate of the emitters is low so this method can be used on all soil types. This is one of the most common and useful methods.

Irrigation

Drip irrigation

Facts:

Modern methods are a boon to agricultural industry and small time farmers. With its help, the dependence on rain has decreased and so have the worried faces of farmers praying to the heavens. In fact the Andhra Pradesh State government has even taken up the integration of two major rivers Godavari and Krishna with a mission to make Rayalaseema drought free. It will make agriculture flourish. The project name is Pattiseema Project and it is India’s fastest built mega project!

We city people live in pigeon holes where nothing more than a potted plant can grow. But don’t despair, try out the drip irrigation set from http://www.projectsforschool.com and experience first-hand how this process works.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/). Drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Top Management Colleges in India

Top 5 Management Colleges in India

               An MBA is a degree for the students who are interested in non-technical fields and Management Colleges in India. Many students also take up MBA most importantly when technical background turns tedious. After engineering, most of the students get into two pathways, one named MS and the other named MBA. I see it happening right now in my college. Three fourth of my friends are giving GRE, the rest are giving CAT. MBA is the glamorous cousin of MS where technical studies are left behind completely.

Following is a list of the Management Colleges in India students should aspire to join if MBA is your thing.

  1. Indian Institute(s) of Management

          The IIMs are the most reputable name in management. IIM Ahmedabad is the best among the IIMs. Their fees are as high as their name. An acquaintance has a student loan of 18 lakh! But the good part is that companies are willing to take you.

Management Colleges in India

Indian Institute(s) of Management

  1. Faculty of Management Studies (FMS)

          It was established in 1954 under the aegis of the University of Delhi. It offers education to the professional managers as part-time and full-time MBA programmes.

Management Colleges in Indai

Faculty of Management Studies (FMS)

  1. Xavier School of Management (XLRI, Jamshedpur)

Commonly known as XLRI Jamshedpur among the aspirants. It offers a postgraduate diploma in Human Resource Management. It equips you with skills to survive any HR role.

Management Colleges in India

Xavier School of Management (XLRI, Jamshedpur)

  1. S.P. Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR)

It is a constituent of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Recognized as one of the premier business schools of India. It has a sprawling 45-acre campus in the western suburbs of Mumbai.

Management Colleges in India

P. Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR)

  1. Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management (SJMSOM)

It is a business school and a part of the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Established in 1995, SJMSOM conducts education and research in leadership, entrepreneurship, technology, management, etc. It offers a full-time degree course (Master of Management) and Management Development Programs (MDP) for company representatives. The school offers short-term programs for the faculty of technical and management institutions.

Management Colleges in India

Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management (SJMSOM)

Recent news said that a 19 year old girl has hit 99 percentile in her first attempt at GMAT. All the CAT and GMAT aspirants really have to sweat it to earn a place in these top management colleges. After all, if you want to spend your life in posh board rooms, the time to work for it is now.

So, if management is your thing, try to get into one of these colleges. Don’t believe what people say. You’ll have a blast in one of the good Management Colleges in India!

In conclusion, this is not the final list of management colleges in India, but certainly, it provides a starting point.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or, on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/). Drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Human Kidneys

Interesting Facts about Human Kidneys

Advertisements of rice bran oil and sunflower oil urge us to take care of our “parivaar ke dil ki dhadkan.” However, despite being an important organ in our body, no one talks of taking care of the Human Kidneys.

Two deaths happen every five minutes due to kidney disease in India – two lakh a year!

Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs in the human body. They extract waste from blood and form urine. It is basically situated opposite each other on either side of the spine. The right kidney sits a little lower than the left to make space for the liver. Human Kidneys are connected to the bladder. With the help of two tubes known as ureters. The urine is stored in the bladder.

Human Kidneys

Human Kidneys

Actions of the kidneys include:

  • Waste excretion: The kidneys filter out excess salts, toxins, and urea. Urea is a nitrogen based waste in the human body.
  • Water level balancing: When you are dehydrated, the kidneys reduce production of urine.
  • Blood pressure regulation: The kidneys need constant pressure to filter blood. When the pressure drops, the kidneys increase it.

Because of the toxins the human kidneys encounter, they are susceptible to various problems. Excessive antacids and milk can cause kidney stones. Kidney failure happens due to the build-up of waste products. They cause shortness of breath, lethargy, weakness, and confusion in the body. Lack of ability to filter out excess potassium from the bloodstream may cause abnormal heart rhythms and sudden death.

Lifelong efforts to control blood pressure and diabetes are the best way to prevent kidney disease. If the kidneys fail completely, the only treatment may be dialysis or kidney transplant. The worst part about living with kidney disease is that it is a silent killer. Initially, symptoms are few and recognized at a very late stage.

Also worth knowing : Haemodylasis

Haemodialysis is cleansing the blood of toxins and extra salts through a dialysis machine. It helps maintain chemical balance and keeps blood pressure under control. Blood is pumped through the machine, where waste products and excess water are removed. This purified blood is then returned to the patient’s body.

Facts about the Human Kidneys

The blood flow in kidneys is higher than the blood flow in the heart, liver and brain!

Exactly half of one single kidney is capable of doing the job that is performed by two kidneys together. This is exactly why the symptoms aren’t diagnosed till very late!

Each individual kidney consists up to 2 million nephrons. Nephrons are tiny filters that can filter blood and eliminate waste materials. The Nephrons cover a distance of 16

kilometres if placed end to end.

The entire blood in the body gets filtered around 400 times in a day through the kidneys! The kidneys reabsorb and redistribute 99% of the blood volume that they filter. Only 1% of the blood that kidneys filter becomes urine.

10% of the adult population (500 million) have some form of kidney damage. Every year millions die of cardiovascular diseases linked to Chronic Kidney Disease.

Alcohol affects kidneys much more than being emphasized.

Remember this –

Human Kidneys disease can never be reversed.

Projects for school provide a working model of human kidney (/product/working-model-of-kidney-school-project-for-kids/) for young scientists to understand the functioning of human kidneys. We also provide a step by step pictorial guide to make this working model yourself.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments, chat with us, use contact us form here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/), drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!