Irrigation and methods

Our unpredictable Mumbai monsoon teaches us that we cannot rely on just rain for water. So what about the Indian farmer whose livelihood depends on water? Gone are the days when Bhuvan in ‘Lagaan’ would sing “Kale megha, Kale megha, Paani toh barsao” and it would rain cats and dogs! After all, life isn’t like the Bollywood dreamland. No? So, to manage their crop, farmers go for what is called irrigation.

What is irrigation?

It is the artificial application of water to the soil. It is used to assist the growing of agricultural crops.

The different methods of irrigation are:

  • Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation consists of methods in which water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity. The water flows through furrows or pipes and advances across the fields. It is best suited to fine textured soil types which promote lateral spread of water down the furrow row.


Surface Irrigation

  • Sprinkler irrigation

It is a method in which water is sprayed, or sprinkled through the air and falls like rain on fields. The sprinkling devices can be permanently set in place (solid set) and then moved after a particular amount of water has been applied (portable set).


Sprinkler Irrigation

  • Subsurface irrigation

In this process, water is applied below the soil surface. This is done through buried plastic tubes which contain embedded emitters located at a regular spacing. Its efficiency is great resulting in water savings of 25-50% as compared to other techniques.


Subsurface irrigation

  • Drip irrigation

In this process water is dripped through emitters to the soil surface as tiny drops. The discharge rate of the emitters is low so this method can be used on all soil types. This is one of the most common and useful methods.


Drip irrigation


Modern methods are a boon to agricultural industry and small time farmers. With its help, the dependence on rain has decreased and so have the worried faces of farmers praying to the heavens. In fact the Andhra Pradesh State government has even taken up the integration of two major rivers Godavari and Krishna with a mission to make Rayalaseema drought free. It will make agriculture flourish. The project name is Pattiseema Project and it is India’s fastest built mega project!

We city people live in pigeon holes where nothing more than a potted plant can grow. But don’t despair, try out the drip irrigation set from and experience first-hand how this process works.

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Top Management Colleges in India

Top 5 Management Colleges in India

               An MBA is a degree for the students who are interested in non-technical fields and Management Colleges in India. Many students also take up MBA most importantly when technical background turns tedious. After engineering, most of the students get into two pathways, one named MS and the other named MBA. I see it happening right now in my college. Three fourth of my friends are giving GRE, the rest are giving CAT. MBA is the glamorous cousin of MS where technical studies are left behind completely.

Following is a list of the Management Colleges in India students should aspire to join if MBA is your thing.

  1. Indian Institute(s) of Management

          The IIMs are the most reputable name in management. IIM Ahmedabad is the best among the IIMs. Their fees are as high as their name. An acquaintance has a student loan of 18 lakh! But the good part is that companies are willing to take you.

Management Colleges in India

Indian Institute(s) of Management

  1. Faculty of Management Studies (FMS)

          It was established in 1954 under the aegis of the University of Delhi. It offers education to the professional managers as part-time and full-time MBA programmes.

Management Colleges in Indai

Faculty of Management Studies (FMS)

  1. Xavier School of Management (XLRI, Jamshedpur)

Commonly known as XLRI Jamshedpur among the aspirants. It offers a postgraduate diploma in Human Resource Management. It equips you with skills to survive any HR role.

Management Colleges in India

Xavier School of Management (XLRI, Jamshedpur)

  1. S.P. Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR)

It is a constituent of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Recognized as one of the premier business schools of India. It has a sprawling 45-acre campus in the western suburbs of Mumbai.

Management Colleges in India

P. Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR)

  1. Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management (SJMSOM)

It is a business school and a part of the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Established in 1995, SJMSOM conducts education and research in leadership, entrepreneurship, technology, management, etc. It offers a full-time degree course (Master of Management) and Management Development Programs (MDP) for company representatives. The school offers short-term programs for the faculty of technical and management institutions.

Management Colleges in India

Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management (SJMSOM)

Recent news said that a 19 year old girl has hit 99 percentile in her first attempt at GMAT. All the CAT and GMAT aspirants really have to sweat it to earn a place in these top management colleges. After all, if you want to spend your life in posh board rooms, the time to work for it is now.

So, if management is your thing, try to get into one of these colleges. Don’t believe what people say. You’ll have a blast in one of the good Management Colleges in India!

In conclusion, this is not the final list of management colleges in India, but certainly, it provides a starting point.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or, on our facebook page ( Drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Human Kidneys

Interesting Facts about Human Kidneys

Advertisements of rice bran oil and sunflower oil urge us to take care of our “parivaar ke dil ki dhadkan.” However, despite being an important organ in our body, no one talks of taking care of the Human Kidneys.

Two deaths happen every five minutes due to kidney disease in India – two lakh a year!

Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs in the human body. They extract waste from blood and form urine. It is basically situated opposite each other on either side of the spine. The right kidney sits a little lower than the left to make space for the liver. Human Kidneys are connected to the bladder. With the help of two tubes known as ureters. The urine is stored in the bladder.

Human Kidneys

Human Kidneys

Actions of the kidneys include:

  • Waste excretion: The kidneys filter out excess salts, toxins, and urea. Urea is a nitrogen based waste in the human body.
  • Water level balancing: When you are dehydrated, the kidneys reduce production of urine.
  • Blood pressure regulation: The kidneys need constant pressure to filter blood. When the pressure drops, the kidneys increase it.

Because of the toxins the human kidneys encounter, they are susceptible to various problems. Excessive antacids and milk can cause kidney stones. Kidney failure happens due to the build-up of waste products. They cause shortness of breath, lethargy, weakness, and confusion in the body. Lack of ability to filter out excess potassium from the bloodstream may cause abnormal heart rhythms and sudden death.

Lifelong efforts to control blood pressure and diabetes are the best way to prevent kidney disease. If the kidneys fail completely, the only treatment may be dialysis or kidney transplant. The worst part about living with kidney disease is that it is a silent killer. Initially, symptoms are few and recognized at a very late stage.

Also worth knowing : Haemodylasis

Haemodialysis is cleansing the blood of toxins and extra salts through a dialysis machine. It helps maintain chemical balance and keeps blood pressure under control. Blood is pumped through the machine, where waste products and excess water are removed. This purified blood is then returned to the patient’s body.

Facts about the Human Kidneys

The blood flow in kidneys is higher than the blood flow in the heart, liver and brain!

Exactly half of one single kidney is capable of doing the job that is performed by two kidneys together. This is exactly why the symptoms aren’t diagnosed till very late!

Each individual kidney consists up to 2 million nephrons. Nephrons are tiny filters that can filter blood and eliminate waste materials. The Nephrons cover a distance of 16

kilometres if placed end to end.

The entire blood in the body gets filtered around 400 times in a day through the kidneys! The kidneys reabsorb and redistribute 99% of the blood volume that they filter. Only 1% of the blood that kidneys filter becomes urine.

10% of the adult population (500 million) have some form of kidney damage. Every year millions die of cardiovascular diseases linked to Chronic Kidney Disease.

Alcohol affects kidneys much more than being emphasized.

Remember this –

Human Kidneys disease can never be reversed.

Projects for school provide a working model of human kidney (/product/working-model-of-kidney-school-project-for-kids/) for young scientists to understand the functioning of human kidneys. We also provide a step by step pictorial guide to make this working model yourself.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments, chat with us, use contact us form here or on our facebook page (, drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Engineering Colleges in India

Top 5 Engineering Colleges in India

As an education startup, always tries to bring to you information and insights about all sorts of careers, colleges, streams of study etc. In the process we also interviewed a lot of students, parents and academicians. This article is based on our interview of an engineering student. The idea is not to list the Engineering Colleges in India, but to see how students prepare and choose between various institutes. Also, to get from the horse’s mouth as to what is a potentially good choice.

Engineering is the most sought after career in India. For the middle class father, it is possible to pay for this professional course while buying a seat in medicine is unimaginable. Stories of successful ‘Mama ka engineer betas’ and “chacha ki engineer betis” strengthen their belief in the power of this degree. In India, when you are asked what you want to do in life after completing, the default answer is expected to be engineering 😛  However, jokes apart, engineering is an excellent career to follow if you have the aptitude and the attitude for it as well as you get to one of the best Engineering Colleges in India.

In this article, we’ve tried to bring together for you, some information about the top 5 engineering colleges in India.

  1. Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)

IIT is almost like the God of all Engineering Colleges in India! Every engineering aspirant dreams of going into IIT. It’s a sure shot way of getting your future settled. If IIT Roorkee is the God, then IIT Madras is St. Peter’s Basilica. IIT Kharagpur, IIT Delhi and IIT Bombay come close. If you are really good, they’ll send you abroad for PhD. After finishing his dual degree, a friend of mine went to study in France. (Ah! Paris <3) Getting in is tough.

You have to be extraordinarily bright. Clearing JEE advanced is not a child’s play. Heck, qualifying for JEE advanced is hard enough (I lost out by 11 marks). It’s a common tendency for kids to slack off after getting into IIT. Understandable. After having slogged for years, (PACE trains kids as young as 12 for IIT) you need a break. Just make sure the break is short or it might break you. Failing in IIT exams has been known to be a common cause of suicides.

Engineering Colleges in India

Indian Institute of Technology

  1. National Institute of Technology (NIT)

NIT Tiruchirapalli is ranked the best among all the NITs’. The best advice I’ve heard when choosing between IIT and NIT is that choose according to place. If you are getting a seat in some remote, new and relatively unknown IIT and in a good, reputed NIT, choose NIT. I assure you the reputed NIT will get you better education and better placement. Don’t run after just the name of IIT.

Engineering Colleges in India

National Institute of Technology (NIT)

  1. Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS)

BITS is a deemed institution famous all over India. BITS Pilani is the best among most of the Engineering Colleges in India. I’ve heard of people who have left reputed IITs for BITS. It has good education and tremendous opportunity for students to become well acquainted with the real world industry.

Engineering Colleges in India

Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS)

  1. Vellore Institute of technology (VIT)

VIT organizes its own entrance exam, called VITEEE. Hthe exam has been conducted online since 2013. I’d given this exam too. Not very seriously though. My mom wouldn’t have sent me unless every good college in Mumbai rejected me 😛 But the fact is that it is a very good institute. Better than even some IITs’. I mean if I had to choose civil in an IIT but a core branch in VIT, I’d opt for VIT any day, happily too.

Engineering Colleges in India

Vellore Institute of technology (VIT)

  1. College of Engineering, Pune

It is an autonomous engineering college affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University in Maharashtra, India. Established in 1854, it is one of the oldest Engineering Colleges in India, after IIT Roorkee.

Engineering Colleges in India

College of Engineering, Pune

So, if engineering is your thing, try to get into one of these colleges. Don’t believe what people say.  Take it from an engineer. You’ll have a blast in one of the good Engineering Colleges in India!

In conclusion, for more details of Engineering Colleges in India or in any other issues feel free to contact us at

Solar Power

Applications of Solar Power

The sun has always been regarded in all the civilizations that have inhabited the earth. Almost every civilization has most importantly worshipped the sun as God. This practice is prevalent even now. It is the source of life on earth. But the true impact of Sun on our earth is yet to be dully discovered.

At any moment, the sun emits about 3.86 x 1026 watts of energy. That’s 386000000000000000000000000 watts!! Quite a whooping number of zeroes, right? We still struggle around such an unimaginably large an amount of energy!

Most importantly, Solar energy is also the cleanest source of renewable energy. The development of affordable and clean solar energy technologies will enhance sustainability, reduce pollution and the use of fossil fuel.

Solar Power

Solar Energy

In light of the numerous and global effects of solar energy, scientists are trying to create ways of harnessing it. They have discovered that photovoltaic cells can be used to harness it . A photovoltaic cell most importantly absorbs light and converts it into electricity. A group of photovoltaic cells is called a solar panel. When sunlight (photons) strikes PV cells, they excite electrons. The electrons flow creating an electric current. PV cells are made up of semiconductor materials like silicon and alloys of indium and gallium. Crystalline silicon is the commonly used.

In this article, let us look at some very common and simple applications of solar power.

Applications of solar power

1) Solar calculators

Solar calculators are hand-held electronic calculators powered by solar cells mounted on the device. Amorphous silicon is used as a photovoltaic solar cell material for devices which require less power such as these pocket calculators. They use liquid crystal displays as they are efficient and operate in the low voltage range of 1.5–2 V. However, they may not work well in indoor conditions.

Solar Power

Solar calculators

2) Solar car

How cool it would be to zip around in a solar car! Most importantly it looks futuristic and funky in addition to making every road trip guilt-free.


Solar Power

Solar Car

3) Solar inverter

It converts the variable direct current (DC) of a photovoltaic solar panel into an alternating current (AC) that basically can be fed into a commercial electrical grid.

Solar Power

Solar inverter

4) Solar cooker

Solar cooker is a device which uses direct sunlight to heat or cook food. Many solar cookers currently in use are relatively inexpensive devices. Some are as powerful as traditional stoves. An advanced, large-scale solar cooker can cook for hundreds of people. They use no fuel. Costs nothing to operate therefore, helps reduce fuel costs and air pollution. This also prevents deforestation caused by gathering firewood for cooking. It’s Eco-friendly and pocket-friendly.

Solar Power

Solar cooker

Because of this, many still think that it is not a commercially viable technology. However, that’s not the case now. Most importantly, it’s the need of the day for more and more people to opt for solar energy. Otherwise, we might find our earth turning into wasteland before our eyes.

If you want your kids to most importantly become solar energy friendly, you may therefore want to begin with sensitizing them to the use of solar energy.

In conclusion, especially relevant for more ideas related to science projects and science fairs you can visit

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or on our facebook page ( Drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!