Irrigation

Irrigation and methods

Our unpredictable Mumbai monsoon teaches us that we cannot rely on just rain for water. So what about the Indian farmer whose livelihood depends on water? Gone are the days when Bhuvan in ‘Lagaan’ would sing “Kale megha, Kale megha, Paani toh barsao” and it would rain cats and dogs! After all, life isn’t like the Bollywood dreamland. No? So, to manage their crop, farmers go for what is called irrigation.

What is irrigation?

It is the artificial application of water to the soil. It is used to assist the growing of agricultural crops.

The different methods of irrigation are:

  • Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation consists of methods in which water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity. The water flows through furrows or pipes and advances across the fields. It is best suited to fine textured soil types which promote lateral spread of water down the furrow row.

Irrigation

Surface Irrigation

  • Sprinkler irrigation

It is a method in which water is sprayed, or sprinkled through the air and falls like rain on fields. The sprinkling devices can be permanently set in place (solid set) and then moved after a particular amount of water has been applied (portable set).

Irrigation

Sprinkler Irrigation

  • Subsurface irrigation

In this process, water is applied below the soil surface. This is done through buried plastic tubes which contain embedded emitters located at a regular spacing. Its efficiency is great resulting in water savings of 25-50% as compared to other techniques.

Irrigation

Subsurface irrigation

  • Drip irrigation

In this process water is dripped through emitters to the soil surface as tiny drops. The discharge rate of the emitters is low so this method can be used on all soil types. This is one of the most common and useful methods.

Irrigation

Drip irrigation

Facts:

Modern methods are a boon to agricultural industry and small time farmers. With its help, the dependence on rain has decreased and so have the worried faces of farmers praying to the heavens. In fact the Andhra Pradesh State government has even taken up the integration of two major rivers Godavari and Krishna with a mission to make Rayalaseema drought free. It will make agriculture flourish. The project name is Pattiseema Project and it is India’s fastest built mega project!

We city people live in pigeon holes where nothing more than a potted plant can grow. But don’t despair, try out the drip irrigation set from http://www.projectsforschool.com and experience first-hand how this process works.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments. Chat with us, use contact us from here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/). Drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Human Kidneys

Interesting Facts about Human Kidneys

Advertisements of rice bran oil and sunflower oil urge us to take care of our “parivaar ke dil ki dhadkan.” However, despite being an important organ in our body, no one talks of taking care of the Human Kidneys.

Two deaths happen every five minutes due to kidney disease in India – two lakh a year!

Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs in the human body. They extract waste from blood and form urine. It is basically situated opposite each other on either side of the spine. The right kidney sits a little lower than the left to make space for the liver. Human Kidneys are connected to the bladder. With the help of two tubes known as ureters. The urine is stored in the bladder.

Human Kidneys

Human Kidneys

Actions of the kidneys include:

  • Waste excretion: The kidneys filter out excess salts, toxins, and urea. Urea is a nitrogen based waste in the human body.
  • Water level balancing: When you are dehydrated, the kidneys reduce production of urine.
  • Blood pressure regulation: The kidneys need constant pressure to filter blood. When the pressure drops, the kidneys increase it.

Because of the toxins the human kidneys encounter, they are susceptible to various problems. Excessive antacids and milk can cause kidney stones. Kidney failure happens due to the build-up of waste products. They cause shortness of breath, lethargy, weakness, and confusion in the body. Lack of ability to filter out excess potassium from the bloodstream may cause abnormal heart rhythms and sudden death.

Lifelong efforts to control blood pressure and diabetes are the best way to prevent kidney disease. If the kidneys fail completely, the only treatment may be dialysis or kidney transplant. The worst part about living with kidney disease is that it is a silent killer. Initially, symptoms are few and recognized at a very late stage.

Also worth knowing : Haemodylasis

Haemodialysis is cleansing the blood of toxins and extra salts through a dialysis machine. It helps maintain chemical balance and keeps blood pressure under control. Blood is pumped through the machine, where waste products and excess water are removed. This purified blood is then returned to the patient’s body.

Facts about the Human Kidneys

The blood flow in kidneys is higher than the blood flow in the heart, liver and brain!

Exactly half of one single kidney is capable of doing the job that is performed by two kidneys together. This is exactly why the symptoms aren’t diagnosed till very late!

Each individual kidney consists up to 2 million nephrons. Nephrons are tiny filters that can filter blood and eliminate waste materials. The Nephrons cover a distance of 16

kilometres if placed end to end.

The entire blood in the body gets filtered around 400 times in a day through the kidneys! The kidneys reabsorb and redistribute 99% of the blood volume that they filter. Only 1% of the blood that kidneys filter becomes urine.

10% of the adult population (500 million) have some form of kidney damage. Every year millions die of cardiovascular diseases linked to Chronic Kidney Disease.

Alcohol affects kidneys much more than being emphasized.

Remember this –

Human Kidneys disease can never be reversed.

Projects for school provide a working model of human kidney (/product/working-model-of-kidney-school-project-for-kids/) for young scientists to understand the functioning of human kidneys. We also provide a step by step pictorial guide to make this working model yourself.

We love to assist our visitors, students, parents in their quest to learn science, you are welcome to leave your questions / comments, chat with us, use contact us form here or on our facebook page (www.facebook.com/projectsforschool/), drop us an email, and we would certainly reply with an answer to your queries!!

Earthquakes

Earthquakes: Fun Facts

You must’ve seen videos of buildings shaking and objects rattling when an earthquake occurs. But do you know what an earthquake is? In this article let’s discover what are earthquakes phenomena actually all about.

The earth is covered by tectonic plates which are floating land masses. When the plates shift, seismic waves travel through the earth causing earthquakes.

Earthquakes

Earthquakes

Let’s look at some facts about earthquakes:

  • The most powerful earthquake ever recorded was in Valdivia, Chile. It had a magnitude of 9.5!
  • Earthquake prone countries like Japan build houses that react well to earthquakes. Good engineering practices can help stop buildings collapsing when an earthquake occurs.
  • San Francisco is moving toward Los Angeles at the rate of 2 inches per year — the same pace as the growth of your fingernails! The cities will meet in several million years!
  • You’d think that the Himalayas would be becoming shorter due to global warming. Contrarily, they are growing taller! The Indian plate pushes against the Eurasia plate making the Himalayas increase in height. Mountaineers will have to climb for longer to reach the peak in a few hundred years.
  • The epicentre is the point on the surface directly above where the earthquake originated.
  • Seismometers measure the magnitude of earthquakes.
  • There are about 500,000 earthquakes a year around the world.
  • A city in Chile moved 10 feet when the massive 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck on 27th Feb 2010! The tear in Earth’s crust shifted the city of Concepción 10 feet to the west.
  • Earth’s bulge was trimmed a little by the 2004 Indonesian earthquake of magnitude 9.0! Earth’s midsection bulges as compared to the measurement from pole-to-pole. The huge land displacement caused a small reduction in the bulge.
  • The Pacific Ring of Fire is the most geologically active region of Earth.
  • Quakes on one side of Earth can affect the other side! Seismologists studying the massive 2004 earthquake found that the quake had weakened at least a portion of California’s famed San Andreas Fault.
  • The earthquake that hit the Tohoku region of Japan had a magnitude of 9.0 and killed over 15000 people!
  • The deadliest earthquake ever struck in Shansi, China killing 830,000 people!
Earthquakes

Earthquakes

It is an earthquake that is thought to have caused the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.It is thought to have had the the energy of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs!! The rupture was more than 600 miles long. It displaced the seafloor by yards. Trillions of tons of rock moved, causing the massive earthquake.

Earthquakes are equally deadly and awe inspiring. We see the real power of nature.

Books that children must read

10 Books that children must read

Books are best friends for life and these much sort after list of books is sure to get your kid hooked into reading.

Lure them to the world of fairy tales and heroes, with this fun compilation which we are sure will be added jewels to your child’s reading list.

Working at projectsforschool.com, I come across so many children who still do not find reading fun. After much of research I have sorted these treasures for life.

  • Charlie and the Chocolate Factory –

    Roald Dahl was the author of this world’s no. 1 storyteller.

    10 Books that children must read

    10 Books that children must read

  • Alice in Wonderland –  

    Long time classic, this fairy-tale is about a young and beautiful girl Alice written by Lewis Carroll.

    10 books every child must read before turning 18 that can be interesting

    10 books every child must read before turning 18 that can be interesting

     

  • The wonderful wizards of Oz –  

    This book is written by the author L.Frank Baum about a young girl Dorothy  in the magical land of oz.

10 books every child must read before turning 18 that are all time favourite

10 books every child must read before turning 18 that are all time favourite

  • The BFG –

    Story about an young orphan girl Sophie and her friendship  with big friendly giant (BFG) written by  author Roald Dalh.

10 books every child must read before turning 18 contains fairytale

                                      10 books every child must read before turning 18 contains fairytale
  •   HARRY POTTER AND THE PHILOSOPHER’S STONE – 

    Author J.K.Rowling takes us to the the magical world of little Harry and his two best friends.

Every little Potter fan will find it fantastic.

10 books every child must read before turning 18 that are magical

10 books every child must read before turning 18 that are magical

  •  Oliver twist – Again a classic and still going strong.

    written by famous author Charles Dickens tells the story about London’s backstreet and some memorably           drawn villain.

    Books that children must read

    Oliver Twist

  • The Jungle book –

    Author Rudyard Kipling takes us to the adventure of little boy Mogli raised by the wolf’s.

10 books every child must read before turning 18 from now on

10 books every child must read before turning 18 from now on

  • The Cat in the hat –

    Author Dr.Suess present the most coolest cat in the world is about a famous cat who always wear a hat.

    Books that children mus read

    The Cat in the hat

10 books every child must read before turning 18 which takes them to wonderland

10 books every child must read before turning 18 which takes them to wonderland

  • Puss in boots –

    This is an 1967 fairy tale about a cat using trickery to gain power.

10 books every child must read before turning 18 that are famous

10 books every child must read before turning 18 that are famous

Happy Reading..

In conclusion, for more projects and ideas related to your child’s work you are free to visit our website http://www.projectsforschool.com

Ten most important scientific discoveries

Ten most important scientific discoveries 

Talking about ten most important scientific discoveries, we will begin by asking a question. Can you imagine the world without medicines and antibiotics? Diseases that have been now eradicated most of all like Polio, Bubonic, Typhus, were epidemics at one point. Ailments that killed human beings have a cure only because of the persistence and hard work of man. However, that is not all. There is much more to scientific discoveries and inventions, beyond just medicines and antibiotics. There’s the Physics, the Chemistry, Scientific Phenomena and much more! In this article, let us look at 10 such game changing scientific discoveries of man.

  1. The Copernicun System

On his deathbed, Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus published his theory that the sun is at the center of the solar system, with the planets revolving around it. Before the Copernican system was introduced, astronomers believed the earth was at the center of the universe. If not for this, we’d still go around thinking that the sun revolves around the earth rather than the other way round.

The Copernicum System

The Copernicun System

  1. Gravity

In 1664, Isaac Newton, an English mathematician and physicist Newton figured out that gravity is the force that draws objects toward each other. As a result, law of gravitation came to be known. If not for gravity, I wonder if we could figure out how to go to the space.

Gravity.jpg

Gravity

  1. Electricity

Michael Faraday discovered that when a wire carrying an electric current is placed next to a single magnetic pole, the wire rotates. He therefore produced an electric current by moving a wire consequently through a magnetic field, creating the first generator. As a result, his discovery revolutionized the entire electricity generating process.

Electricity

Electricity

  1. Evolution

Charles Darwin, the British naturalist, came up with the theory of evolution. It states that all organisms evolve very slowly over time. Due to these changes allow a species to adapt and survive in its environment. If a species doesn’t adapt, it may become extinct. He therefore, called this process natural selection. It’s often called the survival of the fittest. It was this discovery that helped us finally reach an acceptable line of conclusion regarding how humans probably came into being.

Human Evolution

Human Evolution

  1. Bacteria

Before French chemist Louis Pasteur began experimenting with bacteria in the 1860s, people did not know what caused disease. He discovered that disease came from microorganisms and that bacteria could be killed by heat and disinfectant. Most relevantly, doctors now sterilize their instruments saving millions of lives from epidemics of past!

Bacteria

Bacteria

  1. Theory of Relativity

Albert Einstein published the theory of relativity in 1905. It furthermore explains the relationships between speed, time and distance. The complicated theory states that the speed of light always remains the same—300,000 km/second regardless of how fast someone or something is moving toward or rather away from it. Not just that, relativity became one of those philosophical understandings which could bring into perspective therefore brought much more about life than mere physics!

Theory of Relativity

Theory of Relativity

  1. The Big Bang Theory

In 1927, Georges Lemaître proposed the Big Bang theory of the universe. The theory says that all the matter in the universe was originally compressed into a tiny dot. In a fraction of a second, the dot expanded, and all the matter instantly filled what is now our universe. The event marked the beginning of time. As a result, scientific observations seem to confirm the theory.

The Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang Theory

  1. Penicillin

Antibiotics are powerful drugs that kill dangerous bacteria in our bodies curing disease. Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin, which he grew in his lab using mold and fungi. Most noteworthy with this game changer that the entire human civilization consequently found a higher life expectancy and protection against almost many bacterial infections that were most probably yet fatal.

Penicilin

Penicilin

  1. DNA

On February 28 1953, James Watson of the United States and Francis Crick of England basically discovered the double-helix structure of DNA. Furthermore, DNA became the most important segment of the human beings.

DNA

DNA

  1. Periodic Table

Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev had noticed that, when arranged by atomic weight, the chemical elements lined up to form groups with similar properties. He was able to use this to predict the existence of undiscovered elements.

Periodic Table

Periodic Table

Therefore in conclusion, at http://www.projectsforschool.com, we decided to bring to you some interesting snippets from the world of science. This article seems like has covered these amazing discoveries; man wouldn’t be leading a comfortable and long life. Furthermore, we have the previous generations to thank for these discoveries. They have transformed our entire life!! Keep a watch on this section for more such interesting pieces!